Renewable energy in developing countries

ABEST1 Renewable energy in developing countries

Article by jianglanbo

Rationale for renewablesRenewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.Interest in renewable energies has increased in recent years due to environmental concerns about global warming and air pollution, reduced costs of renewable energy technologies, and improved efficiency and reliability. Poverty alleviationRenewable energy projects in many developing countries have demonstrated that renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment. Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting. EducationRenewable energy can also contribute to education, by providing electricity to schools. Renewable energy for cooking and heating can reduce the time that children spend out of school collecting fuel. In addition, the displacement of traditional fuels reduces the health problems from indoor air pollution produced by burning those fuels. HealthRenewable energy can also contribute to improved health by providing energy to refrigerate medicine and sterilize medical equipment. It can also provide power for supplying the fresh water and sewerage services needed to reduce infectious disease. Government policiesFurther information: Renewable energy policyRelatively few developing countries have adopted the public policies needed for the widespread development of renewable energy technologies and markets, which have been dominated by Europe, Japan, and North America. The exceptions include Brazil, which has built the world leading biofuels industry, and China and India, which are leaders in developing decentralized renewable sources such as small hydro, small wind, biogas, and solar water heating. However, with the Kyoto Protocol, there is a program called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that allows for industrialized nations to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. KenyaKenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita (but not the number of watts added). More than 30,000 small solar panels, each producing 12 to 30 watts, are sold in Kenya annually. For an investment of as little as 0 for the panel and wiring, the PV system can be used to charge a car battery, which can then provide power to run a fluorescent lamp or a small television for a few hours a day. More Kenyans adopt solar power every year than make connections to the country electric grid. IndiaIndia Remote Village Electrification Program has steadily progressed. By early 2009, a cumulative total of 4,250 villages and 1,160 hamlets had been electrified using renewable energy. Rural applications of solar PV in India increased to more than 435,000 home lighting systems, 700,000 solar lanterns, and 7,000 solar-powered water pumps. 637,000 solar cookers and 160 MW of small-scale biomass gasification systems for off-grid power generation are in use. See alsoAshden Awards for Sustainable EnergyIndian Solar Loan ProgrammeRenewable energy in ChinaSolar power in South AsiaSolar powered refrigeratorSolarAidUN-EnergyWind power in AsiaSolar power in Pakistan References^ a b c d e Energy for Development: The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals pp. 7-9.^ a b Power for the People p. 3.^ Ashden Awards. “Grameen Shakti installs efficient stoves as well as solar home systems”. http://www.ashdenawards.org/winners/grameen08. Retrieved 2008-11-25. ^ Ashden Awards. “PV-powered vaccine fridges”. http://www.ashdenawards.org/winners/kxn. Retrieved 2008-11-25. ^ Adaptation Fund^ The Rise of Renewable Energy^ REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update p. 22. Categories: Renewable energy policy | Sustainable development | Renewable energy commercialization | International development

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